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Phenobarbital What class of drugs?

Phenobarbital What class of drugs? In the medical world, there is a drug called phenobarbital. Phenobarbital among what drugs and what kind of efficacy? So, Phenobarbital is an antiepileptic drug that is widely used in the treatment of seizures for people with epilepsy or epilepsy.

Phenobarbital Pharmacological Characteristics

Phenobarbital What class of drugs?

Phenobarbital is a prototype of a group of barbiturates that have specific antiepileptic activity. Like all barbiturates, phenobarbital is chemically a 6-membered cyclic diamide, derived from the structure of barbituric acid (malonylurea). Its systematic name is 5-ethyl-5-phenyl-2, 4, 6-( 1H, 3H, 5H) pyrimidine trione. Phenobarbital is a weak acid, with Pka=7. 3. The phenyl group at position 5 imparts phenobarbital specific antiepileptic activity.

Phenobarbital is proven effective for antilepsy drugs, long duration of effect, low toxicity, and low cost. Like other barbiturates, phenobarbital also has side effects in the form of mental stress on the central nervous system. Phenobarbital is well absorbed by the body when given orally, and in the form of sodium salts it will also be more quickly and completely absorbed than in the form of free acids. The effects start within 1 to 2 hours and last for 10 to 12 hours. Phenobarbital is then widely distributed in fluids and tissues, reaching high concentrations in the brain, liver, and kidneys. With the umpteenth administration to the aged, an average plasma concentration of 10 g/ml is achieved and 5 to 7 g/ml in children.

Understanding Epilepsy

Epilepsy is a disease that affects the central nervous system whose clinical manifestations are generally seizures of epilepsy. It is the result of abnormal electrical discharges of neurons in the cerebral cortex. Nearly 70% of the indications for epilepsy can be well controlled with antiepileptic drugs, one of which is phenobarbital. The disease affects people of all ages, although the incidence is greater generally in toddlers as well as in the elderly. It is estimated that it affects close to 1 in 100 people.

Pharmacological treatment of epilepsy can take several years and may require adjustment until maximum therapeutic efficacy is achieved with minimal side effects. For this alibi, until the cure must be supervised by a specialist.

What are the indications for epilepsy? Epilepsy generally manifests with automatic seizures. Clinical indications vary widely, from confusion with seizures (which are very universal and dangerous), to motor, sensory, visual or psychological indications without changing levels of understanding. The duration of the seizures is between 1-5 minutes.

The most important factor for the prognosis and control of epilepsy is the trigger that causes it. The 3 major groups of epilepsy triggers are:

• Genetic causes are also called "idiopathic". This type of epilepsy is caused by genetic changes and usually other family members are inherited.

• Structural causes. Epilepsy arises as a consequence of identified lesions in the brain: trauma, stroke and other vascular lesions, tumors, inflammation, infections, congenital malformations of the cerebral cortex, neurodegenerative diseases, etc.

• Unknown cause. In this case, the trigger for epilepsy is not defined, usually a microscopic structural lesion.

Some triggers are significant at a certain age:

• Genetic epilepsy generally occurs in infants and children.

• Trauma mostly affects young people with epilepsy.

• Brain tumors can manifest as epilepsy at any age, especially in people between the ages of 40-50 years.

• Cerebral vascular disease and neurodegenerative diseases are often the cause of epilepsy in the elderly.

There are many efficient antiepileptic drugs, Phenobarbital is the best known. The choice depends on the type of epilepsy and the balance between maximum efficacy and minimum side effects. Treatment for people with epilepsy must be monitored regularly. Its duration will depend on various factors that can reduce or increase the risk of recurrence when the drug is no longer given.

The growth of surgical methods has also opened up new treatment possibilities for some epilepsy problems that do not respond well to antiepileptic drugs. Surgery is considered when epilepsy does not respond to pharmacological treatment. This occurs in about 30% of people with epilepsy, of whom 5-10% may need surgery.

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