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Anticoagulants - Benefits, dosage and side effects

Anticoagulants - Benefits, dosage and side effects. Anticoagulants are drugs that work to prevent blood clots. This medicine is used to treat or prevent blood vessel blockages that can be life-threatening, such as atrial fibrillation, heart attack, congenital heart disease, stroke, deep vein thrombosis (DVT), or pulmonary embolism.

Anticoagulants - Benefits, dosage and side effects


Anticoagulant drugs are often referred to as blood-thinning drugs, but this designation is inaccurate. This drug does not thin the blood, but inhibits and slows the blood clotting process.


In addition to the conditions mentioned above, anticoagulant drugs are also used in patients who are at risk of developing blood clots due to several conditions, such as knee or hip replacement surgery, heart valve replacement surgery, or congenital diseases such as antiphospholipid syndrome or thrombophilia.


Precautions Before Using Anticoagulants

Note the following points before using anticoagulant drugs:


  • Tell your doctor about any allergies you have. Anticoagulant drugs should not be used in patients who are allergic to these drugs.

  • Tell your doctor if you have had a hemorrhagic stroke, a brain aneurysm, have had recent trauma or bleeding, hemophilia, or heart disease, such as endocarditis, pericarditis, or aortic dissection. This medicine should not be used by patients with these conditions.

  • Tell your doctor if you have kidney disease, liver disease, stomach ulcers, duodenal ulcers, colitis, high blood pressure, or thrombocytopenia.

  • Avoid consuming alcoholic beverages during treatment with anticoagulants because they can increase the risk of bleeding.

  • Have regular blood tests, as directed by your doctor, to ensure the effectiveness and safety of taking anticoagulants while using this medicine.

  • Be careful when you do activities that pose a risk of impact or bleeding, such as when exercising or using sharp objects.

  • Tell your doctor that you are taking anticoagulant drugs if you are planning to undergo certain surgical procedures or medical procedures.

  • Tell your doctor if you are taking certain medications, supplements, or herbal products before using any anticoagulants, to prevent drug interactions.

  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, plan to become pregnant, or are breastfeeding. Anticoagulant drugs are not recommended for use by pregnant women.

  • See your doctor immediately if you have an allergic reaction or overdose after taking anticoagulants.


Side Effects and Dangers of Anticoagulants

Anticoagulant drugs can increase your risk of bleeding more. You may experience more frequent bruising, bleeding gums, or, for women, heavier or longer periods.


Therefore, immediately consult a doctor if you have a serious accident, especially in the head. In addition, see a doctor immediately if you experience symptoms of bleeding, such as:

  • Nosebleeds that often repeat and stop for a long time

  • Black stool

  • Vomiting blood or coughing up blood

  • Severe back pain that appears suddenly

  • There is blood in the urine or feces

  • Hemorrhagic stroke, which can be characterized by severe headache, difficulty speaking, and weakness on one side of the body

  • Bleeding inside the eye, which is characterized by sudden loss of vision

  • Bleeding from a wound that doesn't stop


Other side effects that may arise due to the use of anticoagulant drugs include:


  • Stomach ache

  • Bloated

  • Headache

  • Sluggish

  • Dizzy

  • Fever

  • Nauseous

  • Hair loss

  • skin rash

  • Itchy skin

  • Short breath

  • Low blood pressure


Check with your doctor if these side effects don't go away or get worse. See your doctor right away if you experience serious side effects, such as:


  • Symptoms of a blocked blood vessel, such as painful bruising that later turns black, bluish skin in a web-like pattern, weight loss, muscle aches, or chest pain

  • Purple toes (purple toe syndrome)

  • Death of body tissue (necrosis), which can be characterized by blue-black skin and feeling cold

  • Hepatitis, which can be characterized by jaundice, weakness, and nausea and vomiting

  • Vulnerable to fractures (on long-term use)

  • Thrombocytopenia


Type, Trademark and Dosage of Anticoagulants

Anticoagulant drugs work by blocking the factors needed in the blood clotting process. Each type of anticoagulant drug slows or prevents the blood clotting process by inhibiting different blood clotting factors.


The following are four types of anticoagulant drugs that are divided according to the blood clotting factors they inhibit:


1. Coumarin


Coumarin is a type of anticoagulant drug that works by blocking the action of vitamin K in activating blood clotting factors. The only drugs that fall into this group are:


warfarin


Drug form: tablet


Trademarks: Warfarin, Simarc, Rheoxen, Notisil


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the warfarin drug page.


2. Thrombin . inhibitors


Thrombin inhibitors are anticoagulant drugs that work by inhibiting the activity of thrombin, one of the blood clotting factors, so that the formation of blood clots can be inhibited. One of the drugs that belong to this type of anticoagulant are:


Dabigatran


Drug form: capsule


Trademark: Pradaxa


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the dabigatran drug page.


3. Factor Xa . inhibitors


Factor Xa inhibitors are a type of anticoagulant drug that works by inhibiting the activity of clotting factor Xa. That way, the formation of blood clots can be inhibited. Some examples of these anticoagulant drugs include:


Rivaroxaban


Drug form: tablet


Trademarks: Nostrok, Rivarox, Xarelto


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the rivaroxaban drug page.


Apixaban


Drug form: tablet


Trademarks: Apigat, Aprixa, Eliquis


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the apixaban drug page.


Fondaparinux


Drug form: injection


Trademarks: Arixtra, Diviti, Fondarin, Fondaparinux Sodium, Vasola


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the fondaparinux medicine page.


4. Heparin


Heparin is a type of anticoagulant drug that plays a role in inhibiting thrombin and factor Xa in the late stages of blood clotting. The following are drugs that belong to the type of heparin anticoagulant:


Heparin


Drug form: injection, gel


Trademarks: Clotastop, Hepagusan, Heparinol, Heparin Sodium, Hico, Inviclot, Oparin, Thromboflash, Thrombogel, Thrombophob, Thromecon


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the heparin drug page.


Enoxaparin


Drug form: injection


Trademarks: Antiten-A, Enoxaparin Sodium, Enoxrin, Lovenox


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the enoxaparin drug page.


Nadroparin


Drug form: injection


Trademark: Fraxiparine


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the Nadroparin drug page.


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