Lompat ke konten Lompat ke sidebar Lompat ke footer

History of Drug Use

History of Drug Use - Routine drug consumption is nothing new. Historically, humans have always consumed substances that alter the normal functioning of this central nervous system. Alcohol and opiates were the earliest psychoactive drugs used as far back as around 5,000 BC. At first drugs were only used for analgesic and energizing purposes for daily use and also for religious purposes.

History of Drug Use

Ancestors of Drugs

It is estimated that hemp (cannabis sativa) has been cultivated in China since 4,000 years ago. In America, the Inca kingdom (Andes) harvested 3 annual coca leaf plants (Erythroxilum coca lam). In the Aztecs, eating a mushroom called teonanacati and eating peyote were also common.

For magical-religious purposes, to escape from reality, to overcome problems or because of the inability to do it, for pleasure or for medical purposes, humans have used plants and chemical products listed in drugs. Many psychoactive substances have been used, but the most universal are caffeine, tobacco, alcohol, marijuana, cocaine, and opiates. Alcohol may be the oldest of them all. Historical research shows that the fermentation of some fruit or honey is a distant origin of the world's earliest psychoactives.

Moreover, archaeological findings say that fermented honey and diluted in water (aguamiel or mead) is the first wine eaten by humans since 8000 years later. Since then alcohol has become a part of human life. Fermented drinks were universal among all citizens and fermented drinks became a means of colonial trade. In conclusion, throughout the twentieth century the phenomenon of globalization of consumption patterns has existed, especially after the Second World War, when alcoholic beverages were no longer related to food and new consumption patterns became consumption in large quantities in a short time, linked to leisure activities.

History of Opium

Opioids also have a long history. Opium, the juice from a type of opium, is one of the most versatile drugs known. Thanks to its active ingredient, morphine, this type of drug can numb pain, create joy, facilitate sleep, and reduce suffering.

The poppy plant, known as the opium poppy, has always been used as food, animal feed and oil, but there are historical records that its psychotropic uses were known as early as 3,000 BC. From the Middle East, where this plant was widely used in healing, it spread to India and after that in the 9th century, to China. In Western Europe, opium was used for medicinal purposes in the 16th century, following the expedition of the Swiss physician and alchemist Paracelsus. In China it was originally eaten orally and as a medicine. After that, in the 17th century, consuming smoked opium became popular in the country. Consumption is increasing alarmingly and domestic production is no longer sufficient. It is estimated that in the 19th century there were 16.2 million Chinese people who became opium addicts (6% of the population aged)

Attempts to stop the opium trade led to two consecutive wars (1839-1842 and 1856-1858), between Britain and China, culminating in the defeat of China and the acquisition of a series of privileges by Britain, such as the legalization of this plant in India, the opium trade and the disappearance of the opium trade. Hong Kong government. Until the late 19th century, opiate use was not a real health problem in the West.

Morphine, in honor of the god of sleep Morpheus, was isolated from opium in the early 19th century by Fiedrich William Sertüner of Germany and arrived to take over opium in medical treatment. After that, in 1874, an early semi-synthetic opiate, diacetylmorphine, also known as heroin, was brought up. Several years later it was marketed by Bayer as an antitussive and as a substitute for opium and morphine in detoxification treatments. Heroin achieved great commercial success across the land, due to its large analgesic and stimulatory effects.

Posting Komentar untuk "History of Drug Use"