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Nitroglycerin - Benefits, dosage and side effects

 Nitroglycerin - Benefits, dosage and side effects. Nitroglycerin is a drug to prevent and relieve angina pectoris (chest pain) in patients with coronary heart disease. This drug can also be used in the treatment of heart failure and heart attacks.

Nitroglycerin - Benefits, dosage and side effects

Nitroglycerin or glyceryl trinitrate belongs to the nitrate class of drugs that have a vasodilator effect. This drug works by dilating blood vessels and increasing blood flow.

In patients with coronary heart disease, this way of working will increase the supply of oxygen to the heart muscle, so it can prevent or treat angina pectoris or heart attacks. Meanwhile, in patients with heart failure, this method of work reduces the burden on the heart in pumping blood.

Nitroglycerin trademarks: DBL Glyceryl Trinitrate Concentrate Injection, Glyceryl Trinitrate, NTG, Nitral, and Nitrocaf Retard.

Precautions Before Using Nitroglycerin

There are several things to consider before undergoing treatment with nitroglycerin, namely:

  • Tell your doctor about any allergies you have. Nitroglycerin should not be used in people who are allergic to this drug or to other nitrate drugs, such as isosorbide dinitrate.

  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medicines, especially sildenafil. Nitroglycerin should not be used in patients who are on treatment with these drugs.

  • Tell your doctor if you have recently had a heart attack, or if you have any other heart disease, especially hypertrophic cardiomyopathy, chronic pericarditis, mitral stenosis, or bradycardia.

  • Tell your doctor if you have migraines, recurring headaches, headaches that get worse in the morning and are accompanied by nausea. Also let them know if you have recently had a head injury or hemorrhagic stroke.

  • Tell your doctor if you have or have had glaucoma, anemia, orthostatic hypotension or hypotension, malnutrition, hypothyroidism, lung disease, kidney disease, or liver disease.

  • Do not immediately drive a vehicle or operate heavy machinery if you experience dizziness, headache, or blurred vision after using nitroglycerin.

  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages while on treatment with nitroglycerin, as this can worsen the side effects of this drug.

  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, planning to become pregnant, or are

  • Tell your doctor that you are taking nitroglycerin before having any medical procedure, including dental surgery.

  • Report to your doctor immediately if you experience allergic drug reactions or frequent side effects after using nitroglycerin.

Dosage and Instructions for Use of Nitroglycerin

The dose of nitroglycerin prescribed by a doctor may vary for each patient, depending on the preparation of the drug. The form of the drug to be used will also be adjusted to the condition of the patient who needs to be treated.

The following is the distribution of nitroglycerin doses for adults based on the drug preparation:

Sublingual tablets

Subligual tablets work the fastest, so this preparation is used to relieve angina that is happening. Sublingual tablets can also be used to prevent angina, which usually occurs as a result of strenuous activity or when experiencing emotional stress. Here are the dosages:

Ongoing angina pectoris

The dose is 0.3–0.6 mg, the dose can be repeated every 5 minutes, up to a maximum of 3 times. If after 15 minutes the angina does not subside, go to the hospital immediately.

Prevention of angina pectoris due to strenuous activity

The dose is 0.3–0.6 mg, 5–10 minutes before engaging in activities that usually cause angina, such as intense exercise.

Slow release capsule

The use of nitroglycerin in sustained-release capsules is preferred for the prevention of angina in the long term. Here are the dosages:

The initial dose is 2.5–6.5 mg, taken 3-4 times a day. If necessary, the dose may be increased to 26 mg, 4 times daily.

Infusion fluid

Nitroglycerin infusion form can be given in more dangerous or emergency conditions, for example in heart attack, angina pectoris that lasts longer or occurs without a trigger, or heart failure.

The dose of nitroglycerin infusion will be determined by the doctor, according to the patient's condition and response to the drug.

How to Use Nitroglycerin Correctly

Nitroglycerin in the form of an infusion should only be given by a doctor or medical officer under the supervision of a doctor. Nitroglycerin in the form of intravenous fluids will be given by slow infusion.

If you are prescribed nitroglycerin to be used alone, either a slow-release capsule or a sublingual tablet, follow your doctor's advice and read the instructions on the medicine package before starting to take it. Do not increase or decrease the dose without consulting your doctor first.

Nitroglycerin sustained-release capsules usually need to be taken regularly, whereas sublingual tablets are only used when an angina attack occurs or before engaging in strenuous physical activity, such as exercise.

Nitroglycerin sustained release capsules should be taken in the morning. Swallow the capsule whole with water, without chewing or removing the contents of the capsule first.

Do not stop treatment suddenly, as there is a risk of worsening symptoms. The doctor will reduce the dose gradually if the use of the drug needs to be stopped.

If you forget to take nitroglycerin capsules, take it immediately if it is not close to your next medication schedule. If it is close, ignore the missed dose and do not double the dose the next time you take the drug.

Sublingual tablets should be used as soon as chest pain symptoms appear. Place the tablet under the tongue and allow it to dissolve. Do not chew or swallow the sublingual tablet.

During treatment with nitroglycerin, do not rush to stand up when getting up from sitting or when getting up from a lying position, as this can cause severe dizziness and fainting.

If possible, check your blood pressure and pulse daily using a blood pressure monitor at home while using nitroglycerin. Consult a doctor if your pulse or blood pressure is too low.

Store nitroglycerin in the form of sublingual tablets or slow-release capsules in a cool place away from sunlight. Keep medicine out of reach of children.

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