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Antidepressants - Benefits, dosage and side effects

 Antidepressants - Benefits, dosage and side effects. Antidepressants are drugs used to treat depression. This drug works by balancing natural chemicals in the brain called neurotransmitters. This way of working can help improve and balance the moods and emotions of people with depression.


In addition to treating depression, antidepressants can also be used to treat other mental disorders, such as obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD), generalized anxiety disorder, phobias, binge eating disorder, and bulimia. This medicine should only be used with a doctor's prescription.

Antidepressants


In addition to treating mental disorders, several types of antidepressants also have other benefits, for example to treat skin problems, relieve pain, and treat premature ejaculation.


It should be understood, antidepressants can not cure depression. These drugs only help control or relieve symptoms of depression, or decrease their severity. One patient may have a different compatibility with another patient regarding the type of antidepressant to treat his condition.

Precautions Before Using Antidepressants

There are several things to consider before using an antidepressant, including:


  • Do not use antidepressant medicines if you are allergic to these drugs.

  • Tell your doctor if you have or have had liver problems, hypertension, glaucoma, benign prostate enlargement, thyroid disease, bleeding disorders, porphyria, diabetes, heart disease, kidney disorders, or epilepsy.

  • Consult a doctor first before giving antidepressants to children under 18 years of age.

  • Do not consume alcoholic beverages while undergoing treatment with antidepressants.

  • Tell your doctor if you have or are currently addicted to alcohol or drug abuse.

  • Do not immediately engage in activities that require alertness, such as driving a vehicle, after taking antidepressants. Certain types of antidepressants can cause drowsiness in some people.

  • Do not stop treatment suddenly without consulting your doctor, as this may cause worsening of previously improved symptoms, or lead to withdrawal symptoms, such as dizziness, headache, muscle aches, chills, nausea, or a feeling like electric shock.

  • Tell your doctor if you are taking any other medications, including herbal products or supplements, to anticipate drug interactions.

  • Tell your doctor if you are pregnant, may become pregnant, breastfeeding, or planning a pregnancy.

  • See your doctor right away if you have an allergic reaction or overdose after using an antidepressant.

Side Effects and Dangers of Antidepressants

Antidepressants can cause different side effects, depending on the characteristics of each drug and the patient's condition. The following are some of the possible side effects of taking antidepressants:


  • Headache

  • Nauseous

  • Dizzy

  • Weight gain

  • Dry mouth

  • Loss of sexual desire

  • Difficulty sleeping or insomnia

  • Constipation

  • Diarrhea

  • Tired

  • Tremor



Certain antidepressant drugs can also increase the risk of developing diabetes. Although rare, this drug can also cause some more serious and fatal side effects, namely:


  • Serotonin syndrome, which is characterized by sweating, diarrhea, seizures, irregular heartbeat, and fainting

  • Hyponatremia, which is characterized by headache, muscle aches, loss of appetite, weakness and lethargy, disorientation, psychosis, seizures, and even coma

  • Malignant neuroleptic syndrome, which is characterized by high fever (>390C), excessive sweating or salivation, shortness of breath, muscle rigidity, irregular heartbeat

Type, Trademark, and Dosage of Antidepressant Drugs

Antidepressant drugs should only be used under a doctor's prescription. The following is an explanation of the types of antidepressant drugs:


1. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)


SSRIs work by suppressing the re-absorption of serotonin in the brain so that serotonin levels increase. This type of antidepressant is generally the main choice for treating depression, because the risk of side effects is low.


Examples of SSRI drugs are:


Fluoxetine


Medicine form: Capsule


Trademarks: Andep, Antiprestin, Deprezac, Elizac, Foransi, Fluoxetine HCL, Kalxetin, Nopres, Noxetine, Prozac, Prestin, Zac


For complete information about this drug, please visit the fluoxetine drug page.


sertraline


Drug form: Tablet


Trademarks: Deptral, Fridep 50, Fatal, Iglodep, Nudep 50, Serlof, Sertraline Hydrochloride, Sertraline HCL, Sernade, Zoloft


For complete information about this drug, please visit the sertraline drug page.


Fluvoxamine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: Luvox


To find out complete information about this drug, please visit the fluvoxamine drug page.


Escitalopram


Drug form: Tablet


Trademarks: Cipralex, Depram, Elxion, Escitalopram oxalate


To find out complete information about this drug, please visit the escitalopram drug page.


Dapoxetine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: Priligy


Condition: Premature Ejaculation


Adults: Initial dose is 30 mg, 1-3 hours before sexual intercourse. The maximum dose is 60 mg per day.

2. Tricyclic antidepressants (TCAs)


TCAs work by affecting levels of the neurotransmitter serotonin and a small amount of norepinephrine. That way, the mood can be controlled and the symptoms of depression can subside. Examples of TCAs are:


Amitriptyline


Drug form: Tablet


Trademarks: Amitriptyline, Amitriptyline HCl, Amitriptyline Hydrochloride


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the amitriptyline drug page.


Clomipramine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the clomipramine drug page.


Doxepin


Drug form: Tablet, capsule, cream


Trademark: Sagalon (Cream)


Doxepin to treat depression and insomnia in the form of tablets and capsules. However, currently doxepin in the form of drinking is not yet available in Indonesia.


Condition: Depression


Adults: 75 mg per day. The dose may be increased to 300 mg in severe cases. Doses of more than 100 mg should be divided into 3 separate doses.

Condition: Insomnia


Adults: 3–6 mg once daily, taken 30 minutes before bedtime and 3 hours after meals. The maximum dose is 6 mg per day.

Elderly: 3 mg once daily, may be increased to 6 mg if needed.

In addition to the form of oral medication, doxepin is also available in the form of a cream that can be used to treat itching on the skin due to certain conditions, such as eczema. To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the doxepine drug page.


Maprotiline


Drug form: Tablet


Trademarks: Maprotiline HCl, Tilsan 25, Sandepril


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the maprotiline drug page.


Imipramine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the imipramine drug page.


3. Serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs)


This type of antidepressant works by blocking serotonin and norepinephrine from being reabsorbed by nerve cells so that levels remain high. Examples of SNRI drugs are:


Venlafaxine


Medicine form: Capsule


Trademark: Efexor XR


To find out the dosage and more information about this drug, please visit the venlafaxine drug page.

Duloxetine


Medicine form: Capsule


Trademarks: Cymbalta, Duloxta 60


For complete information about this drug, please visit the duloxetine drug page.


4. Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs)


Monoamine oxidase inhibitors (MAOIs) work by inhibiting the performance of noradrenaline and serotonin compounds to prevent symptoms of depression. Examples of MAOIs are:


Selegiline


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


To find out complete information about this drug, please visit the Selegiline drug page.


Phenelzine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


For complete information about this drug, please visit the phenelzine drug page.


Isocarboxazid


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


For complete information about this drug, please visit the isocarboxazid drug page.


Tranylcypromine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


For complete information about this drug, please visit the tranylcypromine drug page.


5. Atypical antidepressants


This drug works by affecting several types of neurotransmitters at once so that it can improve mood and relieve depression. Examples of atypical antidepressants include:


Bupropion


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: -


For complete information about this drug, please visit the bupropion drug page.


Mirtazapine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademarks: Mirtazapine Hemihydrate, Mirzap


For complete information about this drug, please visit the mirtazapine drug page.


Vortioxetine


Drug form: Tablet


Trademark: Brintellix


Condition: Depression


Adult: Initial dose 10 mg once daily. The dose may be increased to 20 mg or decreased to 5 mg, depending on the patient's response to the drug.

Elderly: Initial dose 5 mg once daily. The dose may be increased to 10 mg once daily if needed.


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